Welcome to the second part of our tutorial on how to create a Markov chain Twitter bot in C++! In the previous part, we introduced the concept of a Markov chain and outlined the steps we will need to follow to create a Twitter bot that generates tweets using this technique. In this part, we will go through each of these steps in detail and provide code examples to help you implement your own Markov chain Twitter bot in C++.

Preprocess the input text

The first step in creating a Markov chain Twitter bot is to preprocess the input text. This involves cleaning and preparing the text for use in the Markov chain. Here are some common preprocessing tasks that you may want to perform:

  • Remove punctuation: You may want to remove punctuation from the input text to simplify the processing. You can do this using the remove_punctuation() function shown below:
string remove_punctuation(string s) {
  string result = "";
  for (char c : s) {
    if (!ispunct(c)) {
      result += c;
  return result;
  • Convert words to lowercase: You may also want to convert all words in the input text to lowercase to make it easier to process. You can do this using the to_lower() function shown below:
string to_lower(string s) {
  transform(s.begin(), s.end(), s.begin(), ::tolower);
  return s;
  • Split the text into tokens: Finally, you will need to split the input text into individual words or tokens. You can do this using the split() function shown below:
vector<string> split(string s) {
  stringstream ss(s);
  vector<string> result;
  string token;
  while (ss >> token) {
  return result;

Build the Markov chain model

Once you have preprocessed the input text, you can build the actual Markov chain model by analyzing the text and determining the probability of each word occurring after a given set of words. Here is some example code that shows how to do this:

map<vector<string>, map<string, int>> build_model(vector<string> tokens, int n) {
  map<vector<string>, map<string, int>> model;
  for (int i = 0; i < tokens.size() - n; i++) {
    vector<string> context;
    for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
      context.push_back(tokens[i + j]);
    string word = tokens[i + n];
  return model;

The build_model() function takes a list of tokens and an integer n as input, and returns a map that represents the Markov chain model. The keys of the map are n-grams (sequences of n words), and the values are maps that contain the words that can follow each n-gram and their respective frequencies.

Generate tweets

Once you have built the Markov chain model, you can use it to generate tweets by starting with a given set of words (called the “context”) and then selecting the next word according to the probabilities determined in the previous step. Here is some example code that shows how to do this:

string generate_tweet(map<vector<string>, map<string, int>> model, vector<string> context, int max_length) {
  string tweet = "";
  while (context.size() > 0 && tweet.length() + context[0].length() + 1 < max_length) {
    string word = weighted_random(model[context]);
    tweet += " " + word;
  return tweet;

The generate_tweet() function takes a Markov chain model, a context (a list of words), and a maximum tweet length as input, and returns a string containing the generated tweet. The function works by iteratively selecting the next word according to the probabilities in the model and updating the context accordingly.

In order to select the next word according to the probabilities in the model, we will need to use a helper function called weighted_random(). This function takes a map of words and their frequencies as input and returns a randomly selected word according to these frequencies. Here is an example implementation of this function:

string weighted_random(map<string, int> choices) {
  int total = 0;
  for (auto choice : choices) {
    total += choice.second;
  int r = rand() % total;
  total = 0;
  for (auto choice : choices) {
    total += choice.second;
    if (r < total) {
      return choice.first;
  return "";

With these functions in place, you should now have everything you need to create a Markov chain Twitter bot in C++. In the next and final part of this tutorial, we will put all the pieces together and show you how to use the Twitter API to post the generated tweets to your account. Stay tuned!

By Tech Thompson

Tech Thompson is a software blogger and developer with over 10 years of experience in the tech industry. He has worked on a wide range of software projects for Fortune 500 companies and startups alike, and has gained a reputation as a leading expert in software development and design.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

WordPress Appliance - Powered by TurnKey Linux